In the next 30 years, five billion people, particularly in Africa and South Asia, may be facing a shortage of drinking water and food. Hundreds of millions more living in coastal areas could be hit by catastrophic floods. This is revealed by a modeling of services that nature will still be able to offer to human populations around the world in 2050 given the rapid decline in biodiversity, the results of which are published in the journal Science.
The most recent report of the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) informed us that one million species are threatened with extinction and that the benefits that humans gain from nature would decrease accordingly. Nature contributes to the well-being of human populations in a variety of ways. It can be in the form of food resources through fishing and agriculture, or more indirectly by contributing to water purification, crop pollination and coastal protection against the devastating effects of storms, for example.
An international team led by Becky Chaplin-Kramer of Stanford University wanted to know where, in the world, the contributions of nature are most needed to ensure the well-being of the people and which populations in particular will scoop the most. nature degradation, in order to plan more targeted actions that would prevent damage.
To do this, researchers have mapped the needs, or even the dependence, of the different populations of the world on three particular services that nature provides them. The service provided by wetland plants and algae that filters pollutants, such as excess nitrates from fertilizers used to increase crop yields, and thereby provide access to drinking water. The service provided by coral reefs, mangroves, seagrasses and salt marshes that mitigate coastal erosion and thereby reduce the impact of flood, wind and water level flooding. from the sea. And the service provided by natural pollinators, such as bees, which ensure fertile crops.
They also mapped nature’s current contributions to nitrate retention, coastal protection and crop pollination around the world. And they have pinpointed, with a precision of 300 meters by 300 meters, the places where these contributions are not enough to meet the needs of the populations, probably because of the degradation of nature, which results notably the presence of pollutants in the increased risk of flooding in coastal areas and crop losses as a result of insufficient pollination.
Using a modeling platform, researchers were then able to predict the impacts of various future scenarios on nature’s ability to meet the needs of human populations. They calculated that, regardless of the scenario, nearly five billion humans may no longer have secure access to safe drinking water and food for their survival in 2050. And hundreds of millions of people living in coastal areas will no longer be protected from the weather.
The researchers also noted that people in Africa and South Asia are facing the greatest threats of famine, lack of drinking water and floods as a result of the degradation of nature. especially those in the Ganges Basin, East China and sub-Saharan Africa, populations that, in addition, rely heavily on nature for their survival.
This study helps to guide the actions that must be taken to mitigate the damage, argue the researchers. According to Elena Bennett of the Department of Natural Resource Sciences at McGill University, « to solve the problems facing the people of South Asia, you can not just tell them to do better management [of their resources] » .
« We must also consider the role that we, the inhabitants of North America, play in their problems by buying various products from South Asia, whether food, holidays in their tourist resorts or even exploitation. of Canadian industries. We are generating pollution there rather than here, « says Bennett, who is one of the authors of the study.
It’s been consistently, abnormally, warm in the Arctic for about as long as any of us can remember. But during recent years, the changes — caused by a massive and ongoing accumulation of heat-trapping gasses in the Earth’s atmosphere — appear to be speeding up. (Far above normal temperatures are expected to invade the Arctic […]
A point of no return in a space-time continuum is a place and / or time at which an event or an ongoing action can not be stopped, or from which it is impossible to change a decision.
Announced since the 1992 conference in Philadelphia, the end of our civilization is getting better and announced its probability increasingly shameless évidente.Si the protagonists of the current neoliberalism, such as those we boast the virtues of the Plan Nord at Quebec, the importance of economic growth by using oil as a development everywhere in the West, or defenders of economic alliances such as NAFTA, for example, play the ostrich before the people by continuing the myth of infinite capitalist growth, the scholars themselves, just given a very discordant note to their symphony « soon » complete: ocean warming.
Ocean warming is now unstoppable following record temperatures of 2014. That’s the finding announced on 16 July 2015 by scientists worldwide in the report entitled « The State of the Climate ». The study, which brought together 413 scientists from 58 countries, said that climate change has contributed to the rising waters, atteignants an unprecedented level.
The researchers also show that the impact of higher ocean temperatures will be felt for centuries, even if immediate efforts to reduce carbon emissions were undertaken. « Even if we could freeze the greenhouse its current level, the sea would continue to warm for centuries and millennia; and that warming will cause its expansion and therefore its elevation, « says the Guardian, oceanographer of the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Agency (NOAA) Greg Johnson.
The ocean warming is permanently installed Wherever ocean temperatures are unusually warm, and the West Coast of the US, the excess heat produced warmer winters, causing drought conditions, and melted the snowpack. According to Tom Karl, director of the national centers of environmental information from NOAA, this surplus could also trigger severe storms.
The absorption capacity of the oceans will change nothing. Although they may retain 90% of the excess heat caused by increased greenhouse gas emissions, they can not control their temperature. That is why they have known in 2014 of temperature records along with a rise in their levels of 6.7 centimeters from 1993. Greg Johnson uses a metaphor to illustrate the problem of ocean warming: « It’s like a freight train. It must be given a great impetus to launch it. But it is on the way now and will continue to advance long after we stopped pushing. «
THE IPCC REACHING THE PORTRAIT … The disaster is looming on the horizon
« The IPCC’s conclusions are based on data from the best of 2005. Given the heaviness of this organization, which brings together 2,500 researchers from 130 countries, including all publications is subject to consensus, the next report not published before 2014. But « the latest observations confirm that the worst scenarios of the IPCC is in the process of being realized. The emissions have continued to rise sharply and the climate system is changing already outside the natural variations within which our societies and our economies are built, « said the scientific committee of the conference. IPCC forecasts anticipate a temperature increase between 1.1 ° C and 6.4 ° C by the end of the century compared to pre-industrial times.
Stefan Rahmstorf presented a study that sea levels could rise within a range of 75 cm to 190 cm by 2100. Either way beyond the IPCC predictions ranging from 18 cm to 59 cm. They – and the IPCC was careful to emphasize – not taking into account changes in the ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica. Or would their role in major reality through melting ice but especially their « flow » into the sea. « This phenomenon is much more massive and much faster than we thought, » says Eric Rignot, professor UC Irvine California.
Lucka Kajfez Bogataj, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia), has peeled all climate studies published recently. She concluded without hesitation: « The impact of global warming is earlier and faster than expected. « Between 1990 and 2006, the world experienced the thirteen warmest years since 1880, which marks the beginning of the industrial age, she cites the example. «
[…] « Present in Copenhagen, the IPCC chairman, Rajendra Pachauri, is not out of his reserve duty, but at nine months of maturity, he found » useful this conference reminds that political A more serious crisis than the economic crisis. » James Hansen, the famous climatologist at NASA who was one of the first to warn in 1988 of the dangers of global warming, was more direct: « the view has to be sure of one thing. Scientists are clear. There are no big uncertainties about the film before us. And politicians can not hide behind alleged unknown for not acting. «
According to George Monbiot, renowned columnist for the British newspaper The Guardian, about climate change, it is time to stop talking about « change » to describe a disaster (13 March 2009).
More recently, the same George Monbiot clearly says it all: we must cease to emit CO2 or go to the disaster (21 March 2009): « The world will not adapt and can not adapt: the only adaptive response to a global shortage of food is starvation. Of the two strategies is reducing emissions, not adaptation, which turns out to be the most realistic option, even if it stretches the concept of feasibility to its limits. As emphasized Dieter Helm, the required action is now unlikely but « not impossible. Ultimately, it is a question of human welfare and ethics. «
Yes, it may already be too late – even if we reduce and ethics. «
Yes, it may be too late
– Even if we reduced emissionsto zero tomorrow –
to prevent a warming of more than two degrees, but we can not behave as if this was the case. For thus we would be doing this certain prediction. As difficult that fight may be, improbable chances of success they are, we can not afford to give up.
Clearly, scientists have done their job. To policies now to make theirs … but do you think that politicians will move?
THE ALARM BELL IS LAUNCHED LONG TIME AGO
Global climate experts present new evidence Friday of the amount of warming in a report intended to guide States towards a major international climate agreement in 2015.
Their objective is to contain global warming below the threshold of 2 ° C since pre-industrial times. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) meeting in Stockholm, was to finalize its report to guide the country towards a broad international agreement in 2015.
The IPCC, co-winner of the Nobel Peace Prize in 2007, was to present in 2013 the « summary for policymakers » of the first phase of its new state of the premises, on the purely scientific aspects. Two volumes (on possible impacts by sector and region and ways to mitigate them) were to follow in spring 2014 before a summary in October 2014.
After the failure of the Copenhagen summit in 2009, these warning signals are likely to boost international climate negotiations. A new global agreement is promised for 2015.
+ 0.8 ° C since the beginning of the twentieth century
« The scientific evidence of (…) Climate change has strengthened year after year, leaving little uncertainty aside its serious consequences », said on Monday the chairman of the IPCC, Rajendra Pachauri. As the planet has already warmed by about 0.8 ° C since the beginning of the twentieth century, the conclusions of the IPCC may highlight the little room in which countries have to stay below the 2 ° C .
Based on contributions from 250 scientists and published studies, the first volume should confirm the man’s responsibility, revise upwards the expected rise in sea level and increased extreme events in some regions, such heat waves or heavy rains for example.
Slower rise from 10-15 years
This summary should also address the possible reasons for the slowdown in 10-15 years the rising thermometer. A « pause » apparent which for climatologists, is temporary and does not affect the warming trend in the long term.
Since 2013, this « summary for policymakers », a document of about thirty pages summarizing thousands of pages of the first volume, which is approved paragraph by paragraph in camera. « These discussions can be seen as the place where science meet, politics and communication, » said the head of communications of one of the NGOs present in Stockholm.
Climate experts presented the IPCC in 2013, their new report. Global warming, human responsibility, increase in extreme weather events, rising sea levels … their findings are worrying.
THE FAMOUS IPCC REPORT IN 2013
The world climate experts presented in 2013, their new report in Stockholm. Gathered within the IPCC, they ensure that the responsibility of man in global warming is more certain than ever. Key findings of this new state of scientific areas.
– Human activity more blamed. It is now « highly likely » that human influence is the main cause of the warming observed since the mid-20th century, equivalent to 95% certainty in the precise terminology of the report. In its latest report, in 2007 this was 90% certainty.
– It increasingly heated, four scenarios possibles.Le IPCC considers it likely that the Earth is warming between 0.3 ° C, in the most optimistic scenario and 4.8 ° C by the end the century compared to the average temperature of the period 1986-2005. The high uncertainty depends primarily on the quantity of greenhouse gases that will be emitted into the atmosphere in coming decades.
– The temperature is already rising by 0.8 ° C since pre-industrial times. The Earth has already warmed by almost one degree in a century. « Limiting climate change will require substantial and sustained reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, » according to Thomas Stocker, Vice President of the IPCC.
– The weather is going to panic more. « Heat waves are likely to occur more frequently and last longer. With global warming, we expect to see the currently wet areas receive more rainfall and dry regions receive less, even if there will be exceptions, « according to Thomas Stocker. The IPCC experts have not however clarified certain aspects of these weather events. – The sea level is expected to rise more than prévu.Le IPCC has revised upwards its projections on the major consequence of global warming. Scientists now believe that it can rise by an average of 26 to 82 cm by 2100 against 18 to 59 cm in the report 2007. Climatologists now better take into account a phenomenon still insufficiently studied there 6: flow in ocean coastal glaciers in Greenland and Antarctica.
According to a report by researchers on climate, greenhouse gases have reached peaks of concentration in the atmosphere in 2014, while the world recorded a record temperature at its surface.
While we are experiencing a new episode of heat wave, researchers on « Climate State » (State of the Climate), reported Thursday that the temperatures recorded on the surface of the Earth broke records in 2014. These specialists also noted that the greenhouse gases that cause climate change have reached peaks of concentration in the atmosphere last year.
In their report published by the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), 413 scientists from 58 different countries reveal that the oceans also experienced last year temperature records while the sea level has reached its highest level. « Europe experienced its warmest year by far, with about twenty countries that have beaten previous records, » the report said. « Many countries in Asia have experienced annual temperatures among the ten warmest. Africa has recorded temperatures above average over most of mainland Australia beat a temperature record for the third time, after a peak in 2013 « . In Latin America, Mexico experienced its warmest year while Argentina and Uruguay reached the second time temperature peaks. Temperature-related exception, the eastern region of North America (including particularly Quebec) is the only area in the world to have experienced last year temperatures below average.
As for the global sea level, up 6.7 centimeters compared to the 1993 average, it has also reached a new record in 2014. Report based on data collected by environmental monitoring stations and published in the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society.
A state of emergency has been declared in the Marshall Islands following severe floods that have swamped the low lying atolls.
Almost a thousand people have been displaced in the capital of Majuro, with another 246 evacuated in the separate island of Arno, according to UN figures. Four evacuation centres have been set up in schools and churches in Majuro.
Exceptionally high tides, known locally as King tides, rose across Majuro on Monday, damaging buildings and infrastructure along the shoreline.
Tony de Brum, the minister-in-assistance to the President of the Marshall Islands, told RTCC that the frequency and intensity of the high tides are increasing, which means those who live close to the shoreline may have to consider more permanent displacement.
“I’m talking about a short term solution to a long term problem,” he said. “Perhaps we can find a way to make more permanent moves for people who are already much too close to the shoreline.”
The Government established an Emergency Operations Centre yesterday, according to the UN, and has been holding National Disaster Committee meetings with humanitarian partners, including Red Cross and the International Organisation for Migration, which are already providing aid in the country.
The Marshall Islands are comprised of 29 atolls which lie at an average of two metres above sea level, making them vulnerable to the effects of climate change.
Parts of the islands lie just 30cm above water, and a sea level rise of 80 cm would inundate two-thirds of the islands, according to projections. This is a scenario which could occur by the end of the century, according to the UN’s climate science body, the IPCC.
Any relocation will be within the islands themselves, said de Brum – the idea of leaving the Marshall Islands remains “repugnant” to islanders, and could be counterproductive in diminishing the imperative to stop polluting.
Currently, people form the outer islands are flowing towards the capital of Majuro, where there are schools, hospitals and economic opportunities, as disappearing shorelines cause their own atolls to become uninhabitable. Between 2006 and 2011, migrants from other islands to Majuro numbered 1,772.
But even moving within the islands is difficult, says de Brum, meaning many residents are becoming increasingly concerned about what the future holds as the climate changes.
“Because people from the other islands will have to rebuild, relocate, and work out the arrangements for financing or for assistance or for land access from the people of Majuro, they’re becoming a lot more concerned about climate change than they’ve ever been before,” he said
Meanwhile, he said, people who already live in Majuro are worried about how they will find the space to accommodate more people as the island itself shrinks. He said: “There’s less land throughout the atoll for the accommodation of our friends and neighbours from the other islands.”
While high tides are expected at this time of the year in the Marshall Islands, de Brum stresses that “this is far from normal”. On parts of the island, water from the lagoon and the ocean sides have risen so far they had met in the middle – something he hadn’t seen since 1979.
With their vulnerability to sea level rise, the Marshall Islands and their neighbouring countries are some of the most ambitious when it comes to pushing for a strong climate change agreement at the UN – a treaty that is expected to be signed off in Paris in 2015.
Last year, the Pacific Small Island States signed a “Majuro Declaration” designed to rally action on climate change – a movement which de Brum says is “gaining momentum” with small and large countries, including Japan and Mexico, signing on.
Although no single extreme weather event can be attributed to climate change, the intensity and frequency of such occurrences are expected to increase this century, and the current floods indicate the threat that they will pose to the islands.
This is something de Brum hopes will help to make their case at the international summits where the future climate treaty is discussed. “High tides speak louder than words and this is yet another example,” he says.
“It presents an opportunity for us whenever we have these king tides for us to refocus attention on what many people don’t realise: that this is a now issue, not a future issue.”
Perchedvery highin the Peruvian Andes, parts ofthe largest tropicalice capmeltedworldat an incredible pace. Scientists have foundthat significant portionsof the ice sheetQuelccayawhich tookover 1,600years to formmeltedin just 25years.
Meanwhile, at the other end of the globe, instead of snow and ice swirling in the wind as we could see, there is only one year, a lake of slush (in Quebec, this is called the slush), one to two feet deep now sloshing around a webcam stationed at the North Pole. The lake melting began to form on July 13, 2013 after two weeks of warm weather in the high Arctic. In early July, temperatures were 2 to 5 degrees above average over much of the Arctic Ocean Fahrenheit, according to the Snow & Ice (National Data Centre). The meltwater ponds germinate more readily in recent years, covering the thin ice, which now accounts for more than half of the Arctic sea ice. The lakes and ponds escape on the smooth surface of the arctic ice, promoting the creation of a network that traps the sun’s heat.
We are witnessing the gradual disappearance of certain multi-year ice thick and wrinkled, who survived more than one freeze-thaw season, because of its rough and irregular surface.
July is the month of melting and warmer temperatures in the Arctic, where the ice is rapidly shrinking. An Arctic cyclone, which can compete with a hurricane of great strength, is scheduled for this week, which will help to break the ice and the level of circulation of hot water from the ocean, accelerating the summer melt. The Arctic has reached record levels of melting the ice was last year on 16 September 2012, the smallest area of Arctic sea ice recorded since satellites began monitoring the Arctic ice in the 1970s.
The rapid and relentless melting of the Arctic is an « economic time bomb » that could cost the capitalist world, at least $ 60 trillion, say researchers who have begun to calculate the financial consequences of one of the fastest changing climates the world … in all its history. A record decline of Arctic sea ice has been widely regarded as economically beneficial so far by Wall Street economists (the balance of the New World Order), because it opens up more opportunities for expeditions and drilling in an area assumed to contain 30 percent of natural gas deposits in the world undiscovered and 13 percent of its undiscovered oil. However, the central role of the Arctic in the regulation of ocean and climate means that it is likely to cause climate change that could damage crops, flooding properties and infrastructure of the wreck in the world , according to a study by academics at Britain’s University of Cambridge and Erasmus University Rotterdam in the Netherlands. This is likely to lead to the creation of new costs that exceed the benefits of three or more orders of magnitude of the potential benefits, said Chris Hope of Cambridge Judge Business School. « People calculate the potential economic benefits in the billions of dollars we are talking about potential costs due to damage and the additional impact of the order of tens of billions of dollars, » he said. Arctic warms two times faster than the rest of the world for many years and the area of the ice that melts and re after every summer, was reduced by an amount almost equal to the size of the United Kingdom every year since 2001.
Last year, the summer ice has been reduced to its lowest point since satellite observations began in 1979, raising concerns about the impact on the climate. European researchers have focused on how the warmer waters in the Arctic should accelerate the thawing of permafrost under the East Siberian Sea north of Russia, which is supposed to contain large deposits of methane. It is a greenhouse gas 20 times more potent than carbon dioxide, even if it does not last as long in the atmosphere. There is much debate about how long it might take to release those methane deposits, and the impact it would eventually have. But some scientists say there is already evidence of large plumes of methane escaping and others fear that this might happen quickly enough to accelerate global warming and ultimately accelerate other changes such as the melting of the ice cap ice of Greenland, which contains enough frozen water to raise sea levels by 7 meters. This is why the group felt it was important to assess the potential economic impact of these changes, said Peter Wadhams, professor of ocean physics at Cambridge who believes that the sea ice in the Arctic could completely disappear in summer by 2015.
They are already behind
Scientists do not seem to share existing information, because it is proven that since January 2011 billion metric tons of ice melted in the territory of Greenland,
Earthquakes contribute to global warming by releasing greenhouse gas emissions very powerful, including methane from the depths of the ocean. A study by Swiss and German scientists discovered a natural source of greenhouse gas emissions.
The researchers stress that climatologists need to consider the amount of methane that is released by earthquakes fracturing seafloor leave open leaks.
To better understand the various sources of GHG emissions: researchers at the University of Bremen have discovered a submarine earthquake in Pakistan, 70 years ago tore leaving open the sea bed and releasing the greenhouse gas emissions, « methane » in the atmosphere. « We suggest that this new source could be considered in the future, » David Fischer, a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Bremen, Germany, and lead author of the study, quoted in the New York Times. Researchers who analyzed sediment cores, met in 2007 at two locations in the northern Arabian Sea. Referred to as the Makran subduction zone, the boundary of the plate triggered tremors most terrible land and murderers like happened in 1945 in Pakistan. A 8.0-magnitude earthquake in Pakistan has resulted in a tsunami causing around 4,000 deaths, according to reports LiveScience. It is well known that the floor of the sea are ideal for the formation of methane in the deep ocean and seabed. Methane hydrates are stable in cold and low temperatures and excessive pressure. The pressure below the water depth of 350 meters helps stabilize hydrates.
For this study, researchers analyzed sediments taken from where the cores have revealed the presence of large quantities of methane. The calculation of the rate of methane in carrots, they felt that there was a significant increase in the level of gas from the earthquake of 1945. The researchers calculated that over the past decade, nearly 7.4 million cubic meters of methane escaped to the surface. « Based on several indicators, we postulated that the earthquake has led to a fracturing of the sediment, releasing gas that has been trapped below the hydrates in the ocean, » said Fischer.
So slowly but surely, we easily will exceed the point of no return and become poisoned our atmosphere, killing most of all life forms on Terre.Les NWO leaders are aware of this death and even try to ‘entretenir.D Moreover, the Bill Gates of this world have already jumped the gun and have built shelters for survival, including all the comforts for a long time.
We, the people of Earth Humans, are doomed to remain asleep and away from these information for Elite. To allow him to prepare for the worst scenario that prepares around us.
If we fight for the New Era, if we struggle to abolish it, and look for a natural alternative to the New World Order, we will prevent the continuation of the Sixth Great Extinction of Species Massive leaving a New Paradise in the Heritage Future Generations.
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