« Fantasy worlds are defined by limits: much is unknown in these worlds, and the unknown either resists being known, or it is left in peace. » A longread on losing oneself in the geography of fantasy worlds, from Middle Earth to Westeros.
And if there was nothing more to be done to save humanity? If it was already too late? The Australian reports a very pessimistic interview famous Australian scientist Frank Fenner. For him, we have sealed the fate of humanity: in less than 100 years, human societies will be more …
In an interview with the national daily The Australian, Frank Fenner, emeritus professor of microbiology at the Australian National University, predicted the demise of humanity in the next 100 years.
This could lead to ominous smile, but the scientist has an impressive 95 year career: Member of the Australian Academy of Science and the Royal Society, his work has been recognized with numerous awards and is the author of hundreds scientific texts. He was particularly involved in the disappearance of the virus responsible for smallpox and in the fight against the overpopulation of rabbits in Australia through the voluntary introduction of the myxomatosis virus in the 50s.
Officially retired since decades, the renowned scientist continues her research and writing, moving daily to the John Curtin Institute of Medicine of the Australian National University, where he was director from 1967 to 1973 .
His deep understanding of the evolution of species has never started his fascination with field observation. Molecular level to the planets, Frank Fenner is interested in all ecosystems. He began to publish its first environmental studies in the early 70s when the impact of human societies on our planet became problematic.
What confidence, or at least interest in his statements.
« We are going to disappear. Whatever we do now, it is too late »
This statement of Frank Fenner is worrisome, especially since it is not a vision of millions of years, but a prediction for the current century!
For Frank Fenner and other renowned scientists like Paul Crutzen, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Earth has entered a new geological epoch, the Anthropocene, since 1800 with the industrial revolution and the massive use of fossil fuels. This new geological epoch succeed the Holocene started there ten thousand years.
Although not officially on the geological timescale, the Anthropocene has been accepted in the scientific terminology is when the men were able to compete with the forces of nature in the ability to alter the ecosystem of the Earth.
In fact, our business global warming climate as important as the great natural cycles and we enter the sixth mass extinction of biodiversity, with a speed probably still faster than leading scale, there is 65 million years, the extinction of the dinosaurs after the fall of an asteroid as Eric Lambin, member of the Academy of sciences of the United States  highlights …
The demographic explosion because « there are already too many people »
The origin of these global imbalances that threaten the very survival of mankind, Frank Fenner blames the population explosion and « unbridled consumption ».
According to the UN, the number of humans has exceeded 7 billion in 2011. Given the inertia of our societies and policy makers on the urgency and importance of measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, Fenner remains pessimistic: « We will suffer the same fate as the people on the Easter Island. climate change is just beginning. But we can already see remarkable changes in the weather. «
« The Aborigines have shown us that without science and carbon dioxide responsible for global warming, they could survive for 40 000 to 50 000 years. But the world can not. Mankind is likely to take the same path that many species that we’ve seen disappear. « he said in an interview.
« Homo sapiens will disappear, maybe in 100 years, » he said. « Many other animals also. This is an irreversible situation. I think it is too late. I try not to say too much because there are people who try to change things. The reduction efforts slowed things a bit, but there are already too many people [on Earth], « he adds.
The population explosion and its consequences: energy bulimia, productivist and consumerist lead humanity to its loss. This observation, taboo, however, is increasingly shared by some scientists and increasingly discussed, but stifled by skeptics on climate change and some of the people for believing that the reproduction is a divine recommendation says Frank Fenner.
A little optimism before the sinking of Humanity?
Stephen Boyden, a colleague and friend of Fenner, think that there is a deep pessimism among some ecologists, but others are more optimistic: « Frank may be right, but some of us still nourish the hope that the situation will lead to awareness and, therefore, the revolutionary changes necessary to achieve ecological « sustainability. Unfortunately, this awareness radical, as expected for years, does not occur or only marginally.
Stephen Boyden adds.. « This is where Frank and I are different We are both aware of the seriousness of the situation, but I do not accept that it‘s necessarily too late Although there has a glimmer of hope, it is worth it to solve the problem. we have the scientific knowledge to do it, but we do not have the political will. «
As such, Frank Fenner opened June 23, 2010 symposium « Healthy Climate, Planet and People » at the Australian Academy of Science. This conference is designed specifically to bridge the gap between science and environmental policy.
Concluding his interview, Frank Fenner, who yet had the honor to announce the global eradication of smallpox in the United Nations in 1980, contemplates despite the chaos of the human species on the brink of extinction mass: « the grandchildren of current generations will face a much more difficult world …«
Perched very high in the Peruvian Andes, parts of the largest tropical ice cap melted world at an incredible pace. Scientists have found that significant portions of the ice sheet Quelccaya which took over 1,600 years to form melted in just 25 years.
Meanwhile, at the other end of the globe, instead of snow and ice swirling in the wind as we could see, there is only one year, a lake of slush (in Quebec, this is called the slush), one to two feet deep now sloshing around a webcam stationed at the North Pole. The lake melting began to form on July 13, 2013 after two weeks of warm weather in the high Arctic. In early July, temperatures were 2 to 5 degrees above average over much of the Arctic Ocean Fahrenheit, according to the Snow & Ice (National Data Centre). The meltwater ponds germinate more readily in recent years, covering the thin ice, which now accounts for more than half of the Arctic sea ice. The lakes and ponds escape on the smooth surface of the arctic ice, promoting the creation of a network that traps the sun’s heat.
We are witnessing the gradual disappearance of certain multi-year ice thick and wrinkled, who survived more than one freeze-thaw season, because of its rough and irregular surface.
July is the month of melting and warmer temperatures in the Arctic, where the ice is rapidly shrinking. An Arctic cyclone, which can compete with a hurricane of great strength, is scheduled for this week, which will help to break the ice and the level of circulation of hot water from the ocean, accelerating the summer melt. The Arctic has reached record levels of melting the ice was last year on 16 September 2012, the smallest area of Arctic sea ice recorded since satellites began monitoring the Arctic ice in the 1970s.
The rapid and relentless melting of the Arctic is an « economic time bomb » that could cost the capitalist world, at least $ 60 trillion, say researchers who have begun to calculate the financial consequences of one of the fastest changing climates the world … in all its history. A record decline of Arctic sea ice has been widely regarded as economically beneficial so far by Wall Street economists (the balance of the New World Order), because it opens up more opportunities for expeditions and drilling in an area assumed to contain 30 percent of natural gas deposits in the world undiscovered and 13 percent of its undiscovered oil. However, the central role of the Arctic in the regulation of ocean and climate means that it is likely to cause climate change that could damage crops, flooding properties and infrastructure of the wreck in the world , according to a study by academics at Britain’s University of Cambridge and Erasmus University Rotterdam in the Netherlands. This is likely to lead to the creation of new costs that exceed the benefits of three or more orders of magnitude of the potential benefits, said Chris Hope of Cambridge Judge Business School. « People calculate the potential economic benefits in the billions of dollars we are talking about potential costs due to damage and the additional impact of the order of tens of billions of dollars, » he said. Arctic warms two times faster than the rest of the world for many years and the area of the ice that melts and re after every summer, was reduced by an amount almost equal to the size of the United Kingdom every year since 2001.
Last year, the summer ice has been reduced to its lowest point since satellite observations began in 1979, raising concerns about the impact on the climate. European researchers have focused on how the warmer waters in the Arctic should accelerate the thawing of permafrost under the East Siberian Sea north of Russia, which is supposed to contain large deposits of methane. It is a greenhouse gas 20 times more potent than carbon dioxide, even if it does not last as long in the atmosphere. There is much debate about how long it might take to release those methane deposits, and the impact it would eventually have. But some scientists say there is already evidence of large plumes of methane escaping and others fear that this might happen quickly enough to accelerate global warming and ultimately accelerate other changes such as the melting of the ice cap ice of Greenland, which contains enough frozen water to raise sea levels by 7 meters. This is why the group felt it was important to assess the potential economic impact of these changes, said Peter Wadhams, professor of ocean physics at Cambridge who believes that the sea ice in the Arctic could completely disappear in summer by 2015.
They are already behind
Scientists do not seem to share existing information, because it is proven that since January 2011 billion metric tons of ice melted in the territory of Greenland,
Earthquakes contribute to global warming by releasing greenhouse gas emissions very powerful, including methane from the depths of the ocean. A study by Swiss and German scientists discovered a natural source of greenhouse gas emissions.
The researchers stress that climatologists need to consider the amount of methane that is released by earthquakes fracturing seafloor leave open leaks.
To better understand the various sources of GHG emissions: researchers at the University of Bremen have discovered a submarine earthquake in Pakistan, 70 years ago tore leaving open the sea bed and releasing the greenhouse gas emissions, « methane » in the atmosphere. « We suggest that this new source could be considered in the future, » David Fischer, a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Bremen, Germany, and lead author of the study, quoted in the New York Times. Researchers who analyzed sediment cores, met in 2007 at two locations in the northern Arabian Sea. Referred to as the Makran subduction zone, the boundary of the plate triggered tremors most terrible land and murderers like happened in 1945 in Pakistan. A 8.0-magnitude earthquake in Pakistan has resulted in a tsunami causing around 4,000 deaths, according to reports LiveScience. It is well known that the floor of the sea are ideal for the formation of methane in the deep ocean and seabed. Methane hydrates are stable in cold and low temperatures and excessive pressure. The pressure below the water depth of 350 meters helps stabilize hydrates.
For this study, researchers analyzed sediments taken from where the cores have revealed the presence of large quantities of methane. The calculation of the rate of methane in carrots, they felt that there was a significant increase in the level of gas from the earthquake of 1945. The researchers calculated that over the past decade, nearly 7.4 million cubic meters of methane escaped to the surface. « Based on several indicators, we postulated that the earthquake has led to a fracturing of the sediment, releasing gas that has been trapped below the hydrates in the ocean, » said Fischer.
So slowly but surely, we easily will exceed the point of no return and become poisoned our atmosphere, killing most of all life forms on Terre.Les NWO leaders are aware of this death and even try to ‘entretenir.D Moreover, the Bill Gates of this world have already jumped the gun and have built shelters for survival, including all the comforts for a long time.
We, the people of Earth Humans, are doomed to remain asleep and away from these information for Elite. To allow him to prepare for the worst scenario that prepares around us.
If we fight for the New Era, if we struggle to abolish it, and look for a natural alternative to the New World Order, we will prevent the continuation of the Sixth Great Extinction of Species Massive leaving a New Paradise in the Heritage Future Generations.
Vote for life with our heart!
I did a lot of personal research on the famous giant volcano Yellowstone and I can not help but reflect on the sudden changes observed recently by scientists from the University of Utah. The news is alarming and we are simply reconsider the meaning of our life, our daily habits and our relationship with nature and … the entire cosmos.
Currently, all humans living in North America is too busy with work, capitalist greed and equipment and their daily routine to really worry about the dangers that threaten us all …!
Numerous studies have established links between solar activity and earthquakes on Earth … or similar eruptions volcaniques.Si the solar maximum of 2012 surprises us by his power, if a major solar storm shakes us with a very very intensive, we will be in trouble. Solar activity when intense, increasing the number and intensity of earthquakes on the planet, eventually producing plates and rearrangements in the evolution of the crust towards the core of the Earth. It is a chain reaction that will undoubtedly awaken many sleeping giants.
The super volcano near Yellowstone National Park in the western United States shows signs of activity « explosive » that could eliminate up to two thirds of the United States.
The ground is inflated by 20 centimeters over the past three years (since 2009), a record.Une supervolcano eruption once activated, two-thirds of the U.S. could become uninhabitable.
During the last two weeks (since the beginning of October 2012), more than 100 small earthquakes of moderate intensity per day, on average, have shaken the region of Yellowstone National Park, putting scientists who monitor the park’s geology state of alert.
If the volcano erupt …
A force a thousand times more powerful than the eruption of Mount St. Helens in 1980, a deadly cloud of ash, erase all living things by creating a layer of 3 meters within 1500 miles.
Two thirds of the U.S. could become uninhabitable by simply sweeping winds toxic air, and millions of people were forced to leave their homes.
The caldera of Yellowstone National Park erupted three times in the last 2.1 million years. A trend in recent years has alerted the experts who closely follow the evolution of the volcano.
The super-volcano underneath the Wyoming park has increased its activity at a record rate since 2004. Its soil inflated at a rate of 7.5 centimeters per year over the past three years, the fastest pace since records began in 1923.
In the absence of other data, scientists are reluctant to give a warning and set a date for a hypothetical eruption.
An eruption of this volcano would far exceed the effect of the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull, which erupted in April last year, causing travel chaos around the world.
The expert in Yellowstone volcanism and professor of geophysics at the University of Utah, Robert Bob Smith, told National Geographic:
« This is an extraordinary scientific development because it covers a vast area and research costs are so high, that at the beginning we were concerned that this could lead to an eruption. »
In 2004, Rob Smith wrote:
« When we saw the magma was at a depth of ten kilometers, we feel more relieved. If it had been at depths of two or three kilometers, then the story would be different. »
In 2012, with more efficient equipment and budgets, the great reservoir of magma was spotted six kilometers from the surface … and the thickness of the crust is very thin below Yelklowstone Park.
We are therefore faced with a sort of countdown to the whims of the cosmos itself.
Toba, 74,000 years ago
The super-eruption of Toba (Indonesia today) occurred 74,000 years here gave birth to a lake in the caldera measuring 100 km long and 60 km wide. In short, it was a colossal explosion whose ashes were scattered over thousands of miles away.
Scientists are only beginning to understand the effects of the release of much volcanic ash in the atmosphere of the planet.
If we analyze geological samples found around the world on the ocean floor, and now carefully preserved at the American University of Columbia, you can find out what happened to the days when Toba erupted.
Professor Michael Rampino of New York University and studied the samples concludes
today that the size of the eruption of Toba was huge. We are talking about 3000 km3 of material that was ejected from the volcano. This represents approximately 10,000 times the size of the eruption of St. Helens in 1980 is considered one of the largest eruptions to this day.
The energy released by the great Toba eruption was equivalent to 1 GT of TNT, or about 67,000 times the Hiroshima bomb. This is a VEI August 10 times more intense than the minimum, producing effects similar to that of an asteroid at least 800 m in diameter on a granitic soil.
A 2500 km from Toba retouve on the ocean floor in a layer of ash 35 cm thick which was deposited immediately after the eruption. It reveals that Toba caused a super volcanic event of a power far greater than all other volcanoes known until today.
The ash analysis revealed that the eruption was rich in sulfur and have released a huge amount of sulfur dioxide and other gases into the stratosphere, where they are fallen aerosol acid compounds sulfuric affecting the Earth’s climate over the years.
June 12, 1991, eruption of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines caused a decrease to 0 .5 degree Celsius global scale.
Following the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991, we know that the ashes transported to the stratosphere, over 18 km altitude at that latitude, have obscured the sunlight and caused a cooling of the climate scale World. The year after the eruption, we indeed witnessed a drop in average global temperature of 0.5 ° C.
By comparing the amount of material ejected by Pinatubo but also St.Helens (IEV 5), Krakatoa (IEV 6) and Tambora (IEV 7), Rampino assessed the temperature drop caused by Toba at 5 ° C. .
On the scale of global climate, a drop of 5 ° C is a global winter. High latitudes (50-70 °) this is a cool 15 ° C during the summer months: Europe supporting 30 ° C as 40 ° C in summer would fall snow in July, there would be a volcanic winter. Effects on agriculture, the growth of plants and ocean life would be catastrophic. This winter time when England, Scandinavia and Canada will experience a polar climate is expected to continue for years with a fatal blow to many living beings, animals and plants.
But what would be the impact on humans? The answer is unfortunately not in the rocks. We can get an idea if we go back to the time when Neanderthal man had to face the coldest 75,000 years ago, during the Würm glaciation that lasted more than 20,000 years. But these are indirect evidence (rock shelters, animal skins and some other utensils coarse).
You can learn more if we stay in Canada, the Scandinavian countries and Central Asia in winter is about the climate of Western Europe would have to bear during a volcanic winter, but with much smaller resources and knowing that these climatic and economic conditions harsh last throughout the year. When I spoke in a cold sweat, this time it is much more concrete …
Mitochondria help anthropologists
Having learned that ecological disruption, two professors specializing in human genetics at the University of Utah, Lynn Jorde, a geneticist at the School of Medicine and Henry Harpending, an anthropologist, has linked this event to the issue of genetic evolution Mitochondria , one of the oldest organizations today and fully integrated human biology.
By analyzing the mutation rate of mitochondrial DNA in ages, Harpending and Jorde noticed a strange phenomenon emerged from their results. It is expected to observe a relatively constant population size, with local peaks of growth and periods of stagnation or even decline, including mixtures of population. But they observed that the human population had decreased to frankly some time.
This observation confirmed that other geneticists thought already. It has long wondered why humanity today presented a genetic variant containing so little when he was so rich to begin with? Phenomenon which might well have been the cause of this trend down? There is indeed all human societies today, whether they live in Africa, Europe, Asia and America have virtually the same genetic heritage so that within a hundred thousand years we should get genetic diversity is much more abundant genetic combinations. What could be the cause?
The answer is that there was a dramatic decrease in population somewhere in the past. Scientists event there are less than 100,000 years: a bottleneck occurred for reasons that remain to be discovered.
The human DNA is so similar across populations today that scientists have concluded that there was certainly a catastrophic reduction in population in the past. How imagine it?
Harpending take the example of the current population is about 6 billion people. The event happened corresponds to almost total extinction where only a few thousand survived. In fact our species was on the verge of extinction.
But a corollary it speaks also to our evolution. In an extraordinary diversity prior to the eruption, our ancestors would have gone through a bottleneck which would explain the poverty of our genetic heritage today and fragility. Concretely, this means that we all descend from the same family.
According to Lynn Jorde, mitochondrial mutations are carried out with great regularity and the number of mutations can serve as a genetic clock to date the major events. In the case of our throttling Harpending and Jorde felt that occurred here 70 or 80 thousand years.
Remains to be seen how this event has caused major mortality which left on Earth that 5 or 10 thousand survivors?
Until now, geneticists had no idea what could have caused this accident. Henry Harpending began a lecture series in American universities to discuss this « bottleneck ». It was on this occasion he was invited by prof. Stanley Ambrose, a paleoanthropologist at the University of Illinois to give a lecture to his students.
It is by reading the history of the human population bottlenecks and asking that she might be the cause Ambrose found the explanation. He communicated his idea to immediately Harpending who read his message a week later. Ambrose spoke of the great eruption of a volcano called Toba in Sumatra …
As we have said, the research team went on the assumption that the strangulation occurred between 70 and 80 thousand years, although this date is still widely debated. The super volcano Toba erupted 74,000 years here, right in the middle of this period. The super-eruption of Toba would have led to the extinction of most human beings.
Remember that at this time the man had already conquered most of submerged lands in Africa, Europe, America and Asia, and this year 500,000 people were already several million people. Before the explosion is believed that hundreds of species of hominids branched and more or less affiliated lived on Earth. After the explosion a single species would have survived, which led to Homo sapiens.
If the two events are connected vraiments, this has implications on the future terrifying eruption of Yellowstone. Its eruption could be of the same magnitude as that of Toba and have a devastating effect, not only on the surrounding region, but all over the Earth.
Scenario Yellowstone super eruption
Michael Rampino, the Yellowstone super eruption was between 1000 and 2500 times more powerful than Mount St. Helens, a power that Yellowstone has implemented in the past.
Imagine over 1000 volcanoes like Pinatubo or St.Helens erupted simultaneously entering … The explosion release into the atmosphere between 1000 and 2500 km3 of ash and volcanic material. Incandescent magma blocks of several cubic meters fall on the ground at supersonic speed. In a few minutes hundreds of thousands if not millions of people will die in the United States instantly incinerated, pulverized. Large fertile plains are covered with ash.
If this happens in winter ashes mingle with the snow to form streams of mud, even more devastating lahars because of their high density and their higher inertia. In a few days the ash cloud will reach the Gulf of Mexico.
The transport of the blast in the upper atmosphere billions of billions of tons of ash, dust and sulfur dioxide which gradually darken the sunlight.
Extension of the two previous eruptions of Yellowstone. 2/3 of the United State are affected. This could he reproduce? Scientists think. Prepared by Dan Brennan and Mary Diman / UW-Madison News Graphics, translated and adapted by the author. All rights reserved.
The climate will be altered on a global scale in the space of a few months. We will undergo continuous volcanic winter will last several years. Crops will be destroyed for several seasons even for several years, and especially wheat reserves of the United States who are now the breadbasket of the entire planet.
The economic crisis is catastrophic and it will probably a generation or two to see life reborn, half a century during which deprivation of life will be extremely painful for everyone!
The pessimists predict that this event will be fatal for humanity because there will be no resources available with all the excesses that this social cause. If this theory seems to be confirmed by the events of the past, some scientists oppose this conclusion deemed too Ardie. For our survival, hope they are right.
If this theory is correct, and it seems subsequently confirmed by several separate events, we can better understand why scientists had cold sweats when they learned that was not only a Yellowstone super volcano, but he was ready to wake up … A story that could lead to the 6th extinction, that of humanity … and a very high percentage of other forms of life on Earth.
Given the state of the planet after the disaster, it might be better if we disappeared in the eruption, because I’d rather keep the memory of green grass and blue sky punctuated here and there, cumulus beautiful time rather than see dry grass, dead trees gnawed by sulfuric acid, a gray sky out of sight and have to live the rest of my life in the cold and artificial lights! … But let us hope, the earth has already experienced such disasters and man has always maintained its survival instinct.
Also, as Defender of the Earth, I propose ways to ensure a minimum of people can continue the extraordinary adventure of Humanity … on Earth or in outer space!
By joining together in abolishing war, trying to change the vision of humans on Earth, we will succeed in the future, despite the disasters that threaten us, to realize that we have failed in the past or live united in the harmony of all our communion with ecosystems
all life forms who share our beautiful blue planet … Earth … Gaia!
by Michel Duchaine ,
founder of the Defenders of the Earth
Truthseeker and Truthteller
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