humanity at risk: The point of no return was crossed and ocean warming can not be stopped

Ce glacier qui fond dans une région nordique est un bel exemple du réchauffement global des océans. Ceci devrait suffire à lui seul pour décimer la population  du peuple des Humains de la Terre. Nous aurions franchi le point de non retour! Les responsables des entreprises capitalistes polluantes vont vous dire qu'ils sont désolé,donc on n'a plus rien à dire,Nous ,les esclaves!/ This glacier melting in a northern region is a fine example of global warming of the oceans. This should be enough in itself to decimate the population of the people of Earth Humans. We should have passed the point of no return! Those responsible for polluting capitalist companies will tell you they are sorry, so we have nothing more to say, we, the slaves!/
This glacier melting in a northern region is a fine example of global warming of the oceans.
This should be enough in itself to decimate the population of the people of Earth Humans.
We should have passed the point of no return!
Those responsible for polluting capitalist companies will tell you they are sorry, so we have nothing more to say, we, the slaves!/

 

 

Definition:

 

A point of no return in a space-time continuum is a place and / or time at which an event or an ongoing action can not be stopped, or from which it is impossible to change a decision.

Announced since the 1992 conference in Philadelphia, the end of our civilization is getting better and announced its probability increasingly shameless évidente.Si the protagonists of the current neoliberalism, such as those we boast the virtues of the Plan Nord at Quebec, the importance of economic growth by using oil as a development everywhere in the West, or defenders of economic alliances such as NAFTA, for example, play the ostrich before the people by continuing the myth of infinite capitalist growth, the scholars themselves, just given a very discordant note to their symphony « soon » complete: ocean warming.

Ocean warming is now unstoppable following record temperatures of 2014. That’s the finding announced on 16 July 2015 by scientists worldwide in the report entitled « The State of the Climate ». The study, which brought together 413 scientists from 58 countries, said that climate change has contributed to the rising waters, atteignants an unprecedented level.

The researchers also show that the impact of higher ocean temperatures will be felt for centuries, even if immediate efforts to reduce carbon emissions were undertaken. « Even if we could freeze the greenhouse its current level, the sea would continue to warm for centuries and millennia; and that warming will cause its expansion and therefore its elevation, « says the Guardian, oceanographer of the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Agency (NOAA) Greg Johnson.

The ocean warming is permanently installed
Wherever ocean temperatures are unusually warm, and the West Coast of the US, the excess heat produced warmer winters, causing drought conditions, and melted the snowpack. According to Tom Karl, director of the national centers of environmental information from NOAA, this surplus could also trigger severe storms.

The absorption capacity of the oceans will change nothing. Although they may retain 90% of the excess heat caused by increased greenhouse gas emissions, they can not control their temperature. That is why they have known in 2014 of temperature records along with a rise in their levels of 6.7 centimeters from 1993. Greg Johnson uses a metaphor to illustrate the problem of ocean warming: « It’s like a freight train. It must be given a great impetus to launch it. But it is on the way now and will continue to advance long after we stopped pushing. « 

THE IPCC REACHING THE PORTRAIT … The disaster is looming on the horizon

climat-les-chiffres-cle-le-changement-climatique-dans-le-monde-10999426fysyd

 

« The IPCC’s conclusions are based on data from the best of 2005. Given the heaviness of this organization, which brings together 2,500 researchers from 130 countries, including all publications is subject to consensus, the next report not published before 2014. But « the latest observations confirm that the worst scenarios of the IPCC is in the process of being realized. The emissions have continued to rise sharply and the climate system is changing already outside the natural variations within which our societies and our economies are built, « said the scientific committee of the conference. IPCC forecasts anticipate a temperature increase between 1.1 ° C and 6.4 ° C by the end of the century compared to pre-industrial times.

Stefan Rahmstorf presented a study that sea levels could rise within a range of 75 cm to 190 cm by 2100. Either way beyond the IPCC predictions ranging from 18 cm to 59 cm. They – and the IPCC was careful to emphasize – not taking into account changes in the ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica. Or would their role in major reality through melting ice but especially their « flow » into the sea. « This phenomenon is much more massive and much faster than we thought, » says Eric Rignot, professor UC Irvine California.

Lucka Kajfez Bogataj, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia), has peeled all climate studies published recently. She concluded without hesitation: « The impact of global warming is earlier and faster than expected. « Between 1990 and 2006, the world experienced the thirteen warmest years since 1880, which marks the beginning of the industrial age, she cites the example. « 

Les  immenses incendies de forêts au nord de la Saskatchewan  au Canada,ainsi qu'aux États-Unis et en Australie sont directement lié au réchauffement climatique./ The huge forest fires in northern Saskatchewan in Canada and the United States and Australia are directly related to global warming./
The huge forest fires in northern Saskatchewan in Canada and the United States and Australia are directly related to global warming./

[…] « Present in Copenhagen, the IPCC chairman, Rajendra Pachauri, is not out of his reserve duty, but at nine months of maturity, he found » useful this conference reminds that political A more serious crisis than the economic crisis.  » James Hansen, the famous climatologist at NASA who was one of the first to warn in 1988 of the dangers of global warming, was more direct: « the view has to be sure of one thing. Scientists are clear. There are no big uncertainties about the film before us. And politicians can not hide behind alleged unknown for not acting. « 

According to George Monbiot, renowned columnist for the British newspaper The Guardian, about climate change, it is time to stop talking about « change » to describe a disaster (13 March 2009).

More recently, the same George Monbiot clearly says it all: we must cease to emit CO2 or go to the disaster (21 March 2009): « The world will not adapt and can not adapt: ​​the only adaptive response to a global shortage of food is starvation. Of the two strategies is reducing emissions, not adaptation, which turns out to be the most realistic option, even if it stretches the concept of feasibility to its limits. As emphasized Dieter Helm, the required action is now unlikely but « not impossible. Ultimately, it is a question of human welfare and ethics. « 

Yes, it may already be too late – even if we reduce and ethics. « 

Yes, it may be too late

– Even if we reduced emissions to zero tomorrow –

to prevent a warming of more than two degrees, but we can not behave as if this was the case. For thus we would be doing this certain prediction. As difficult that fight may be, improbable chances of success they are, we can not afford to give up.

Clearly, scientists have done their job. To policies now to make theirs … but do you think that politicians will move?

THE ALARM BELL IS LAUNCHED LONG TIME AGO

 Global climate experts present new evidence Friday of the amount of warming in a report intended to guide States towards a major international climate agreement in 2015.

 

Les Maldives sont parmi les premières victimes du réchauffement climatique./ The Maldives are among the first victims of global warming.
The Maldives are among the first victims of global warming.

Their objective is to contain global warming below the threshold of 2 ° C since pre-industrial times. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) meeting in Stockholm, was to finalize its report to guide the country towards a broad international agreement in 2015.

The IPCC, co-winner of the Nobel Peace Prize in 2007, was to present in 2013 the « summary for policymakers » of the first phase of its new state of the premises, on the purely scientific aspects. Two volumes (on possible impacts by sector and region and ways to mitigate them) were to follow in spring 2014 before a summary in October 2014.

Les innondations se multiplient depuis quelques années...partout dans le monde./ The floods are increasing in recent years ... all over the world.
The floods are increasing in recent years … all over the world.

 

After the failure of the Copenhagen summit in 2009, these warning signals are likely to boost international climate negotiations. A new global agreement is promised for 2015.

+ 0.8 ° C since the beginning of the twentieth century

« The scientific evidence of (…) Climate change has strengthened year after year, leaving little uncertainty aside its serious consequences », said on Monday the chairman of the IPCC, Rajendra Pachauri. As the planet has already warmed by about 0.8 ° C since the beginning of the twentieth century, the conclusions of the IPCC may highlight the little room in which countries have to stay below the 2 ° C .

Based on contributions from 250 scientists and published studies, the first volume should confirm the man’s responsibility, revise upwards the expected rise in sea level and increased extreme events in some regions, such heat waves or heavy rains for example.

Slower rise from 10-15 years

This summary should also address the possible reasons for the slowdown in 10-15 years the rising thermometer. A « pause » apparent which for climatologists, is temporary and does not affect the warming trend in the long term.

Since 2013, this « summary for policymakers », a document of about thirty pages summarizing thousands of pages of the first volume, which is approved paragraph by paragraph in camera. « These discussions can be seen as the place where science meet, politics and communication, » said the head of communications of one of the NGOs present in Stockholm.

Climate experts presented the IPCC in 2013, their new report. Global warming, human responsibility, increase in extreme weather events, rising sea levels … their findings are worrying.


 

THE FAMOUS IPCC REPORT IN 2013

La photo alarmante du réchauffement global./ The alarming picture of the global warming.
The alarming picture of the global warming.

The world climate experts presented in 2013, their new report in Stockholm. Gathered within the IPCC, they ensure that the responsibility of man in global warming is more certain than ever. Key findings of this new state of scientific areas.

– Human activity more blamed. It is now « highly likely » that human influence is the main cause of the warming observed since the mid-20th century, equivalent to 95% certainty in the precise terminology of the report. In its latest report, in 2007 this was 90% certainty.

– It increasingly heated, four scenarios possibles.Le IPCC considers it likely that the Earth is warming between 0.3 ° C, in the most optimistic scenario and 4.8 ° C by the end the century compared to the average temperature of the period 1986-2005. The high uncertainty depends primarily on the quantity of greenhouse gases that will be emitted into the atmosphere in coming decades.

le-rapport-alarmant-du-giec-en-chiffres-les-dernieres-annonces-11000225jktyb

– The temperature is already rising by 0.8 ° C since pre-industrial times. The Earth has already warmed by almost one degree in a century. « Limiting climate change will require substantial and sustained reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, » according to Thomas Stocker, Vice President of the IPCC.

Le réchauffement climatique est bien chiffré ici./ Global warming is encrypted here.
Global warming is encrypted here.

– The weather is going to panic more. « Heat waves are likely to occur more frequently and last longer. With global warming, we expect to see the currently wet areas receive more rainfall and dry regions receive less, even if there will be exceptions, « according to Thomas Stocker. The IPCC experts have not however clarified certain aspects of these weather events.
  
– The sea level is expected to rise more than prévu.Le IPCC has revised upwards its projections on the major consequence of global warming. Scientists now believe that it can rise by an average of 26 to 82 cm by 2100 against 18 to 59 cm in the report 2007. Climatologists now better take into account a phenomenon still insufficiently studied there 6: flow in ocean coastal glaciers in Greenland and Antarctica.


According to a report by researchers on climate, greenhouse gases have reached peaks of concentration in the atmosphere in 2014, while the world recorded a record temperature at its surface.

Exemple d'irresponsabilité sociale et politique:les exploitations des sables bitumineux au nord de l'Alberta,au Canada. La pollution des eaux de surface et des eaux  souterraines devrait couter 10 fois la valeur  des profits générés  par ce sale pétrole./ Example of social and political irresponsibility: the oil sands operations in northern Alberta, Canada. Pollution of surface water and groundwater should cost 10 times the value of the profits generated by this dirty oil./
Example of social and political irresponsibility: the oil sands operations in northern Alberta, Canada.
Pollution of surface water and groundwater should cost 10 times the value of the profits generated by this dirty oil./

While we are experiencing a new episode of heat wave, researchers on « Climate State » (State of the Climate), reported Thursday that the temperatures recorded on the surface of the Earth broke records in 2014. These specialists also noted that the greenhouse gases that cause climate change have reached peaks of concentration in the atmosphere last year.

Extinction de la biodiversité 15 à 37% de la biodiversité auront disparu d'ici 2050 du fait du réchauffement planétaire, affirme un article publié en 2004 par un collectif de scientifiques du monde entier. Le rythme actuel de disparition des espèces de la planète est de 100 à 1000 fois supérieur au rythme naturel qu'on a connu depuis l'histoire de la terre. En savoir plus Extinction of biodiversity from 15 to 37% of biodiversity will have disappeared by 2050 because of global warming, says an article published in 2004 by a group of scientists worldwide. The current rate of species loss on the planet is 100 to 1000 times the natural rate that has been known since the history of the earth./
Extinction of biodiversity from 15 to 37% of biodiversity will have disappeared by 2050 because of global warming, says an article published in 2004 by a group of scientists worldwide. The current rate of species loss on the planet is 100 to 1000 times the natural rate that has been known since the history of the earth./

In their report published by the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), 413 scientists from 58 different countries reveal that the oceans also experienced last year temperature records while the sea level has reached its highest level. « Europe experienced its warmest year by far, with about twenty countries that have beaten previous records, » the report said.
« Many countries in Asia have experienced annual temperatures among the ten warmest. Africa has recorded temperatures above average over most of mainland Australia beat a temperature record for the third time, after a peak in 2013 « . In Latin America, Mexico experienced its warmest year while Argentina and Uruguay reached the second time temperature peaks.
Temperature-related exception, the eastern region of North America (including particularly Quebec) is the only area in the world to have experienced last year temperatures below average.

Un lac asséché en Chine:bientôt des centaines de millions de gens   deviendront des victimes de cet asséchement./ A dry lake in China soon hundreds of millions of people become victims of this drying up./
A dry lake in China soon hundreds of millions of people become victims of this drying up./

As for the global sea level, up 6.7 centimeters compared to the 1993 average, it has also reached a new record in 2014.
Report based on data collected by environmental monitoring stations and published in the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society.

Des événements climatiques extrêmes comme   la supertempête Sandy,en octobre 2012, deviendront de plus en plus fréquents et intenses. L'environement va devenir hostile aux humains./ Extreme weather events such as Sandy supertempête, in October 2012, will become more frequent and intense. The environment will become hostile to humans.
Extreme weather events such as Sandy supertempête, in October 2012, will become more frequent and intense.
The environment will become hostile to humans.
La température a dépassé jeudi ,le 5 juillet 2015,les 50 degrés Celsius au Koweït, un record pour cette année, selon le Centre météorologique de ce pays désertique du nord du Golfe. Les températures tournent autour de 40°C durant l'été au Koweït mais il arrive qu'elles grimpent au-dessus de 50°C. Aux environs de 14H00 locales (11H00 GMT) le mercure est monté à 50,1°C dans la capitale koweïtienne, pour la première fois cette l'année, selon le site internet du centre. Il a même atteint 50,9°C à l'aéroport international, situé à une vingtaine de km au sud de la capitale. Ce niveau a été dépassé dans le désert alors que les Koweïtiens et les communautés musulmanes vivant dans le pays observent le jeûne du mois du ramadan. Au poste frontalier d'Abdali avec l'Irak, à 120 km au nord de la capitale, la température a atteint 51,1°C et même 52°C dans la localité proche de Mutriba. Ces températures exceptionnelles ont été provoquées par un front d'air chaud et sec alors que l'humidité n'atteint que 5%, selon le Centre météorologique. En conséquence, la consommation d'électricité, largement utilisée pour la climatisation, a atteint un pic de 12.000 mégawatts, soit près de 90% de la capacité du pays, et 500 mégawatts de plus que mercredi./ The temperature has exceeded Thursday, July 5, 2015, the 50 degrees Celsius in Kuwait, a record for this year, according to the Meteorological Centre of the desert country of northern Gulf. The temperatures will be around 40 ° C during the summer in Kuwait but sometimes they climb above 50 ° C. At around 2:00 p.m. local time (1100 GMT) mercury rose to 50.1 ° C in the Kuwaiti capital, for the first time this year, according to the center's website. He even reached 50.9 ° C at the international airport, located about twenty kilometers south of the capital. This level was exceeded in the desert while Kuwaiti and Muslim communities living in the country are observing the fasting month of Ramadan. Abdali border crossing with Iraq, 120 kilometers north of the capital, the temperature reached 51.1 ° C and even 52 ° C in the locality near Mutriba. These exceptional temperatures were caused by a warm front air dry while the humidity reaches only 5%, according to the Meteorological Centre. As a result, electricity consumption, widely used for air conditioning, reached a peak of 12,000 megawatts, or nearly 90% of the capacity of the country and more than 500 megawatts Wednesday./

The temperature has exceeded Thursday, July 5, 2015, the 50 degrees Celsius in Kuwait, a record for this year, according to the Meteorological Centre of the desert country of northern Gulf.
The temperatures will be around 40 ° C during the summer in Kuwait but sometimes they climb above 50 ° C.
At around 2:00 p.m. local time (1100 GMT) mercury rose to 50.1 ° C in the Kuwaiti capital, for the first time this year, according to the center’s website.
He even reached 50.9 ° C at the international airport, located about twenty kilometers south of the capital.
This level was exceeded in the desert while Kuwaiti and Muslim communities living in the country are observing the fasting month of Ramadan.
Abdali border crossing with Iraq, 120 kilometers north of the capital, the temperature reached 51.1 ° C and even 52 ° C in the locality near Mutriba.
These exceptional temperatures were caused by a warm front air dry while the humidity reaches only 5%, according to the Meteorological Centre.
As a result, electricity consumption, widely used for air conditioning, reached a peak of 12,000 megawatts, or nearly 90% of the capacity of the country and more than 500 megawatts Wednesday./

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Publicités

Notes and researches about the Yellowstone supervolcano

Au-début de l'hiver 2012, la webcam face au Mammouth Terrace indique 44 degrés Celsius.
October 20,2012…the webcam face to the terrace Spring Mammouth indicated 44 caelsius degres.

 

What is a super volcano?

A super volcano is the most destructive force on this planet. Only a few exist in the world and when they erupt they do so with a force tens of thousands of times greater than other eruptions. They lie dormant for hundreds of thousands of years as a vast reservoir of magma builds up inside them before finally they unleash their apocalyptic force, capable of obliterating continents. They threaten the survival of  actual mankind.

Comparaison entre diverses éruptions volcaniques.Remarquez que le mont St-Helens ressemble à un nain au côté de Yellowstone.
Many differents eruptions compared .See the Mount St-Helen’s eruption look like a dwarf.

 

 
What happened during the last eruption of a super volcano?

The last eruption of a super volcano was in Toba, Sumatra, 75,000 years ago. It had 10,000 times the explosive force of Mount St. Helens and changed life on Earth forever. Thousands of cubic kilometres of ash was thrown into the atmosphere – so much that it blocked out light from the sun all over the world. 2,500 miles away 35 centimetres of ash coated the ground. Global temperatures plummeted by 21 degrees. The rain would have been so poisoned by the gasses that it would have turned black and strongly acidic. Man was pushed to the edge of extinction, the population forced down to just a couple of thousand. Three quarters of all plants in the northern hemisphere were killed.

What causes super volcanoes?
Super volcanoes differ from normal volcanoes in many ways. The stereotypical volcano is a towering cone, but super volcanoes form in depressions in the ground called calderas. When a normal volcano erupts lava gradually builds up in the mountain before releasing it. In super volcanoes when magma nears the surface it does not reach it, instead it begins to fill massive underground reservoirs. The magma melts the nearby rock to form more extremely thick magma. The magma is so viscous that volcanic gasses that normally trigger an eruption cannot pass, so a massive amount of pressure begins to build up. This continues for hundreds of thousands of years until an eruption occurs, which blasts away a huge amount of ground, forming a new caldera.

 

Depuis 680,000 ans ,l'ensemble de la surface de la grande caldeira est en remontée.Depuis quelques années,la pression a considérablement augmentée et l'élévation s'accélère.

Since 680,000 years , the whole surface of the lift is large caldera.
In recent years, the pressure has increased considerably and the rise is accelerating.

Where are there other super volcanoes?

Not all super volcanoes have been found, but one of the largest is in Yellowstone Park, USA. Scientists searching for the caldera in the park could not see it because it was so huge – only when satellite images were taken did the scale of the caldera become apparent – the whole park, 85km by 45km, is one massive reservoir of magma. The idyll landscpae of Yellowstone (below) could soon explode with devastating consequences.

When will it next erupt?

Scientist have discovered that the ground in Yellowstone if 74cm higher than in was in 1923 – indicating a massive swelling underneath the park. The reservoir is filling with magma at an alarming rate. The volcano erupts with a near-clockwork cycle of every 600,000 years. The last eruption was more than 640,000 years ago – we are overdue for annihilation.

What would be the effect of an eruption?

Immediately before the eruption, there would be large earthquakes in the Yellowstone region. The ground would swell further with most of Yellowstone being uplifted. One earthquake would finally break the layer of rock that holds the magma in – and all the pressure the Earth can build up in 640,000 years would be unleashed in a cataclysmic event.

Magma would be flung 50 kilometres into the atmosphere. Within a thousand kilometres virtually all life would be killed by falling ash, lava flows and the sheer explosive force of the eruption. Volcanic ash would coat places as far away as Iowa and the Gulf of Mexico. One thousand cubic kilometres of lava would pour out of the volcano, enough to coat the whole of the USA with a layer 5 inches thick. The explosion would have a force 2,500 times that of Mount St. Helens. It would be the loudest noise heard by man for 75,000 years, the time of the last super volcano eruption. Within minutes of the eruption tens of thousands would be dead.

Représentation de l'éruption de Toba.
Toba eruption representation.

The long-term effects would be even more devastating. The thousands of cubic kilometres of ash that would shoot into the atmosphere could block out light from the sun, making global temperatures plummet. This is called a nuclear winter. As during the Sumatra eruption a large percentage of the world’s plant life would be killed by the ash and drop in temperature. Also, virtually the entire of the grain harvest of the Great Plains would disappear in hours, as it would be coated in ash. Similar effects around the world would cause massive food shortages. If the temperatures plummet by the 21 degrees they did after the Sumatra eruption the Yellowstone super volcano eruption could truly be an extinction level event.

 

Autre comparaison  entre plusieurs éruptions.
Other comparaisons  inter many eruptions.

 

Other articles on the same subject:

 

http://michelduchaine.com/2013/11/19/yellowstone-alert-countdown-to-the-apocalypse-is-engaged/

 

Earth in Danger-awakening of Yellowstone

Yes my friendsThe Yellowstone caldeira...view from the webcam on  the top of the  mount Washburn, all of our North American civilization, even our Western civilization is not only threatened, but will perish with certainty.

 

I did a lot of personal research on the famous giant volcano Yellowstone and I can not help but reflect on the sudden changes observed recently by scientists from the University of Utah. The news is alarming and we are simply reconsider the meaning of our life, our daily habits and our relationship with nature and … the entire cosmos.

Currently, all humans living in North America is too busy with work, capitalist greed and equipment and their daily routine to really worry about the dangers that threaten us all …!

Numerous studies have established links between solar activity and earthquakes on Earth … or similar eruptions volcaniques.Si the solar maximum of 2012 surprises us by his power, if a major solar storm shakes us with a very very intensive, we will be in trouble. Solar activity when intense, increasing the number and intensity of earthquakes on the planet, eventually producing plates and rearrangements in the evolution of the crust towards the core of the Earth. It is a chain reaction that will undoubtedly awaken many sleeping giants.

But what if there is a super volcano, which is already showing signs of activity?

The super volcano near Yellowstone National Park in the western United States shows signs of activity « explosive » that could eliminate up to two thirds of the United States.

The ground is inflated by 20 centimeters over the past three years (since 2009), a record.Une supervolcano eruption once activated, two-thirds of the U.S. could become uninhabitable.

During the last two weeks (since the beginning of October 2012), more than 100 small earthquakes of moderate intensity per day, on average, have shaken the region of Yellowstone National Park, putting scientists who monitor the park’s geology state of alert.

If the volcano erupt …

A force a thousand times more powerful than the eruption of Mount St. Helens in 1980, a deadly cloud of ash, erase all living things by creating a layer of 3 meters within 1500 miles.

Limitation of the great caldeira of Yellowstone supervolcano.

Two thirds of the U.S. could become uninhabitable by simply sweeping winds toxic air, and millions of people were forced to leave their homes.

The caldera of Yellowstone National Park erupted three times in the last 2.1 million years. A trend in recent years has alerted the experts who closely follow the evolution of the volcano.

The super-volcano underneath the Wyoming park has increased its activity at a record rate since 2004. Its soil inflated at a rate of 7.5 centimeters per year over the past three years, the fastest pace since records began in 1923.

In the absence of other data, scientists are reluctant to give a warning and set a date for a hypothetical eruption.

An eruption of this volcano would far exceed the effect of the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull, which erupted in April last year, causing travel chaos around the world.

The expert in Yellowstone volcanism and professor of geophysics at the University of Utah, Robert Bob Smith, told National Geographic:

« This is an extraordinary scientific development because it covers a vast area and research costs are so high, that at the beginning we were concerned that this could lead to an eruption. »

In 2004, Rob Smith wrote:

« When we saw the magma was at a depth of ten kilometers, we feel more relieved. If it had been at depths of two or three kilometers, then the story would be different. »

In 2012, with more efficient equipment and budgets, the great reservoir of magma was spotted six kilometers from the surface … and the thickness of the crust is very thin below Yelklowstone Park.

We are therefore faced with a sort of countdown to the whims of the cosmos itself.

Here’s why:

The consequences of the eruption of a supervolcano on Earth Humans

Toba, 74,000 years ago

 

The super-eruption of Toba (Indonesia today) occurred 74,000 years here gave birth to a lake in the caldera measuring 100 km long and 60 km wide. In short, it was a colossal explosion whose ashes were scattered over thousands of miles away.

Scientists are only beginning to understand the effects of the release of much volcanic ash in the atmosphere of the planet.

If we analyze geological samples found around the world on the ocean floor, and now carefully preserved at the American University of Columbia, you can find out what happened to the days when Toba erupted.

Professor Michael Rampino of New York University and studied the samples concludes
today that the size of the eruption of Toba was huge. We are talking about 3000 km3 of material that was ejected from the volcano. This represents approximately 10,000 times the size of the eruption of St. Helens in 1980 is considered one of the largest eruptions to this day.

The energy released by the great Toba eruption was equivalent to 1 GT of TNT, or about 67,000 times the Hiroshima bomb. This is a VEI August 10 times more intense than the minimum, producing effects similar to that of an asteroid at least 800 m in diameter on a granitic soil.

A 2500 km from Toba retouve on the ocean floor in a layer of ash 35 cm thick which was deposited immediately after the eruption. It reveals that Toba caused a super volcanic event of a power far greater than all other volcanoes known until today.

The ash analysis revealed that the eruption was rich in sulfur and have released a huge amount of sulfur dioxide and other gases into the stratosphere, where they are fallen aerosol acid compounds sulfuric affecting the Earth’s climate over the years.

June 12, 1991, eruption of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines caused a decrease to 0 .5 degree Celsius global scale.

june 12,1991,the eruption of the mount Pinatubo,in Philippinas.

Following the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991, we know that the ashes transported to the stratosphere, over 18 km altitude at that latitude, have obscured the sunlight and caused a cooling of the climate scale World. The year after the eruption, we indeed witnessed a drop in average global temperature of 0.5 ° C.

By comparing the amount of material ejected by Pinatubo but also St.Helens (IEV 5), Krakatoa (IEV 6) and Tambora (IEV 7), Rampino assessed the temperature drop caused by Toba at 5 ° C. .

On the scale of global climate, a drop of 5 ° C is a global winter. High latitudes (50-70 °) this is a cool 15 ° C during the summer months: Europe supporting 30 ° C as 40 ° C in summer would fall snow in July, there would be a volcanic winter. Effects on agriculture, the growth of plants and ocean life would be catastrophic. This winter time when England, Scandinavia and Canada will experience a polar climate is expected to continue for years with a fatal blow to many living beings, animals and plants.

But what would be the impact on humans? The answer is unfortunately not in the rocks. We can get an idea if we go back to the time when Neanderthal man had to face the coldest 75,000 years ago, during the Würm glaciation that lasted more than 20,000 years. But these are indirect evidence (rock shelters, animal skins and some other utensils coarse).

You can learn more if we stay in Canada, the Scandinavian countries and Central Asia in winter is about the climate of Western Europe would have to bear during a volcanic winter, but with much smaller resources and knowing that these climatic and economic conditions harsh last throughout the year. When I spoke in a cold sweat, this time it is much more concrete …

Mitochondria help anthropologists

Having learned that ecological disruption, two professors specializing in human genetics at the University of Utah, Lynn Jorde, a geneticist at the School of Medicine and Henry Harpending, an anthropologist, has linked this event to the issue of genetic evolution Mitochondria , one of the oldest organizations today and fully integrated human biology.

By analyzing the mutation rate of mitochondrial DNA in ages, Harpending and Jorde noticed a strange phenomenon emerged from their results. It is expected to observe a relatively constant population size, with local peaks of growth and periods of stagnation or even decline, including mixtures of population. But they observed that the human population had decreased to frankly some time.

This observation confirmed that other geneticists thought already. It has long wondered why humanity today presented a genetic variant containing so little when he was so rich to begin with? Phenomenon which might well have been the cause of this trend down? There is indeed all human societies today, whether they live in Africa, Europe, Asia and America have virtually the same genetic heritage so that within a hundred thousand years we should get genetic diversity is much more abundant genetic combinations. What could be the cause?

The answer is that there was a dramatic decrease in population somewhere in the past. Scientists event there are less than 100,000 years: a bottleneck occurred for reasons that remain to be discovered.

The human DNA is so similar across populations today that scientists have concluded that there was certainly a catastrophic reduction in population in the past. How imagine it?

Harpending take the example of the current population is about 6 billion people. The event happened corresponds to almost total extinction where only a few thousand survived. In fact our species was on the verge of extinction.

But a corollary it speaks also to our evolution. In an extraordinary diversity prior to the eruption, our ancestors would have gone through a bottleneck which would explain the poverty of our genetic heritage today and fragility. Concretely, this means that we all descend from the same family.

According to Lynn Jorde, mitochondrial mutations are carried out with great regularity and the number of mutations can serve as a genetic clock to date the major events. In the case of our throttling Harpending and Jorde felt that occurred here 70 or 80 thousand years.

Remains to be seen how this event has caused major mortality which left on Earth that 5 or 10 thousand survivors?

Until now, geneticists had no idea what could have caused this accident. Henry Harpending began a lecture series in American universities to discuss this « bottleneck ». It was on this occasion he was invited by prof. Stanley Ambrose, a paleoanthropologist at the University of Illinois to give a lecture to his students.

It is by reading the history of the human population bottlenecks and asking that she might be the cause Ambrose found the explanation. He communicated his idea to immediately Harpending who read his message a week later. Ambrose spoke of the great eruption of a volcano called Toba in Sumatra …

As we have said, the research team went on the assumption that the strangulation occurred between 70 and 80 thousand years, although this date is still widely debated. The super volcano Toba erupted 74,000 years here, right in the middle of this period. The super-eruption of Toba would have led to the extinction of most human beings.

Remember that at this time the man had already conquered most of submerged lands in Africa, Europe, America and Asia, and this year 500,000 people were already several million people. Before the explosion is believed that hundreds of species of hominids branched and more or less affiliated lived on Earth. After the explosion a single species would have survived, which led to Homo sapiens.

If the two events are connected vraiments, this has implications on the future terrifying eruption of Yellowstone. Its eruption could be of the same magnitude as that of Toba and have a devastating effect, not only on the surrounding region, but all over the Earth.

Scenario Yellowstone super eruption

Michael Rampino, the Yellowstone super eruption was between 1000 and 2500 times more powerful than Mount St. Helens, a power that Yellowstone has implemented in the past.

Imagine over 1000 volcanoes like Pinatubo or St.Helens erupted simultaneously entering … The explosion release into the atmosphere between 1000 and 2500 km3 of ash and volcanic material. Incandescent magma blocks of several cubic meters fall on the ground at supersonic speed. In a few minutes hundreds of thousands if not millions of people will die in the United States instantly incinerated, pulverized. Large fertile plains are covered with ash.

If this happens in winter ashes mingle with the snow to form streams of mud, even more devastating lahars because of their high density and their higher inertia. In a few days the ash cloud will reach the Gulf of Mexico.

The transport of the blast in the upper atmosphere billions of billions of tons of ash, dust and sulfur dioxide which gradually darken the sunlight.

On the las eruption of the Yellowstone supervolcano,the 2/3 of the United States land was recover by  a high amount of ashes (some places had  2 meters).

Extension of the two previous eruptions of Yellowstone. 2/3 of the United State are affected. This could he reproduce? Scientists think. Prepared by Dan Brennan and Mary Diman / UW-Madison News Graphics, translated and adapted by the author. All rights reserved.

The climate will be altered on a global scale in the space of a few months. We will undergo continuous volcanic winter will last several years. Crops will be destroyed for several seasons even for several years, and especially wheat reserves of the United States who are now the breadbasket of the entire planet.

The economic crisis is catastrophic and it will probably a generation or two to see life reborn, half a century during which deprivation of life will be extremely painful for everyone!

The pessimists predict that this event will be fatal for humanity because there will be no resources available with all the excesses that this social cause. If this theory seems to be confirmed by the events of the past, some scientists oppose this conclusion deemed too Ardie. For our survival, hope they are right.

If this theory is correct, and it seems subsequently confirmed by several separate events, we can better understand why scientists had cold sweats when they learned that was not only a Yellowstone super volcano, but he was ready to wake up … A story that could lead to the 6th extinction, that of humanity … and a very high percentage of other forms of life on Earth.

Given the state of the planet after the disaster, it might be better if we disappeared in the eruption, because I’d rather keep the memory of green grass and blue sky punctuated here and there, cumulus beautiful time rather than see dry grass, dead trees gnawed by sulfuric acid, a gray sky out of sight and have to live the rest of my life in the cold and artificial lights! … But let us hope, the earth has already experienced such disasters and man has always maintained its survival instinct.

Also, as Defender of the Earth, I propose ways to ensure a minimum of people can continue the extraordinary adventure of Humanity … on Earth or in outer space!

By joining together in abolishing war, trying to change the vision of humans on Earth, we will succeed in the future, despite the disasters that threaten us, to realize that we have failed in the past or live united in the harmony of all our communion with ecosystems

all life forms who share our beautiful blue planet … Earth … Gaia!

 

by Michel Duchaine ,

founder of the Defenders of the Earth

Truthseeker and Truthteller

PS

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