via Aquatic Methane-Breathing Aliens Could Be Chilling on Enceladus

Laisser un commentaire

Scientists find potential evidence of methanogenesis, a biological process, on Saturn’s moon Enceladus. By Becky Ferreira | MOTHERBOARD The ocean interior of Saturn’s moon Enceladus may have the “temperatures and chemical energy sources necessary for habitable conditions,” according to new research published in Science on Thursday. This major finding is the result of an extremely […]

via Aquatic Methane-Breathing Aliens Could Be Chilling on Enceladus — Brights – Die Natur des Zweifels


The best “supermoon” photos from around the globe — Quartz

Laisser un commentaire

The moon just made its closest approach to our planet since 1948, lifting tides and spirits around the world as it did so. If you didn’t get outside, or had your view obscured by clouds, fear not: The next “supermoon” of this caliber is coming right up, in November 2034—less than a blip in celestial…

via The best “supermoon” photos from around the globe — Quartz

Fantastic discovery of two bright spots on Ceres

Un commentaire

Cérès le 25 février 2015.

Ceres,the february 25 ,2015.

« They look at us. » That is the impression that we could have two bright spots side by side on Ceres appeared on the photo taken at 46,000 miles away, on 19 February. The dwarf planet in only had in previous vigils. The tweet says it is a « variable » stain.

« Puzzling ‘bright spot’ on dwarf planet #Ceres has dimmer companion. Détails:


An « unexpected and mysterious » event


Chriss Russell, the charge of the Dawn mission, the spacecraft that took the photo, provided the following explanation: « The bright spot now has a companion of a lesser brightness, but apparently in the same crater. This may indicate a similar origin to volcanism, but it will be a better resolution before making such geological interpretations « >> Read:. A mysterious radio signal came from ailleursLe responsible for the shooting, Andreas Nathues adds that » the bright spot is too small for the camera, but despite its size, it is brighter than anything else on Ceres. This is really unexpected and it remains a mystery to us. « Dawn should take new pictures in March which may help to find answers to this.

The current quiet solar cycle raises questions about its impact on Earth

Un commentaire

Photo du soleil ...5 novembre 2013

Picture of the sun  …november 5 , 2013

The surface of the sun was surprisingly quiet – with fewer spots than at any time in the last century – encouraging curious scientists to wonder exactly what this might mean here on Earth.

Related Stories
Sunspots were observed for thousands of years – first by Chinese astronomers and then, for the first time with a telescope by Galileo in 1610.

Sunspots appear in cycles of about 11 years – more in a daily avalanche and then decreasing drastically, before amplification again .

But this cycle – nicknamed « the cycle of 24 – has surprised scientists with its slowness .

The number of points scored because it began in December 2008 is well below the average over the last 250 years . In fact , this is less than half .

« This is the weakest solar cycle that was all from the space age , 50 years , » said the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association , the physicist Doug Biesecker .

Beau jeu

Young people play football at sunset on the artificial beach located in the Ponta Negra …
The intense electromagnetic energy sunspot has a significant impact on emissions of ultraviolet rays and X rays of the sun as well as solar storms .

Solar storms can disrupt telecommunications and electronic networks Terre.L Activity sunspots can also have an impact on the climate of the Earth.

 Cycle 23 peaked in April 2000 with an average of 120 solar day points. Then the cycle wound down, hit bottom around December 2008, the time for scientists, began the beginning of the current cycle.

The minimum solar activity at the end of cycle 23 has led astronomers to predict a slow 24 cycle. But the reality is even fell below expectations .

In the first year of the cycle, during which solar activity have increased , astronomers have 266 days without a single stain sun.

Dévots hindous de retour après avoir pris un bain sacré dans le ...

Hindu Devotees return after taking a holy dip at Sangam while the sun sets in Allahabad …
« The peak forecast was 90 sunspots, » said Biesecker, noting that even if the activity has increased over the last year, « it is very clear that he will not be close to 90. »

« The number of sunspots peaked last year to 67, almost half of a typical cycle, » he added.

The last time the sunspot cycle was this slow was in February 1906, the peak of cycle 14, with only 64 points per day.

The « long minimum: three years, three times more than the previous three rounds of the Space Age » was a surprise, said University of Montana physicist Andres Munoz-Jamillio.

A magnet switch

Une photo prise depuis un avion montre le soleil levant ...

A photo taken from an airplane shows the sun rising behind the clouds at dawn over the outskirts of Bankok
Cycle 24 also deviated from the standard of another surprising way.
In general, towards the end of each solar cycle of 11 years, the magnetic fields of the sun changes direction . The northern and southern hemispheres change their polarity , often simultaneously.

In exchange, the magnetic field strength drops to near zero and reappears when the polarity is reversed, the scientists explain .

But this time, something different seems to happen . The north pole already reversed polarity, several months ago – and now the same polarity as the south pole .

The most recent satellite measurements ,  » the southern hemisphere should return to the near future , » said Todd Hoeksema , Director of the Solar Observatory Wilcox at Stanford University .

It does not seem concerned about the phenomenon .

But scientists are watching closely to see the sun if the cycle 24 will be an aberration – or if it will calm the next solar cycle stretch through.

« We will not know for another good three or four years , » said Biesecker .

Some researchers believe this could be the beginning of a long period of low solar activity.

The last time it happened, during the so-called  » Maunder Minimum  » between 1650 and 1715 almost no sunspots were observed. During the same period , temperatures plummeted to Earth , causing the so-called  » Little Ice Age  » in Europe and North America.

As the number of sunspots continue to remain low , it is possible the Earth’s climate is affected again .

But thanks to global warming, we are unlikely to see another ice age. « Things did not start to cool , they just do not grow as quickly , » said Biesecker .

Other articles on the same subject:

Alert: Life on Earth is threatened … the magnetic fields of the Earth weakens

Laisser un commentaire



The European Space Agency Friday launched three satellites, Ellel hopes to help understand why the magnetic field that makes human life possible on Earth, appears to be weakening . Satellites, including ESA Swarm project were launched from the Plesetsk Cosmodrome in Russia on a Rockot at 7:02 EST and were placed in near-polar orbit at an altitude of 490 kilometers ( 304 miles ) about 91 minutes later. Swarm data that is due to be collected for the next four years will improve the relatively vague understanding of scientific magnetic field that protects life on Earth from deadly solar radiation and helps the migration of certain animals. Scientists say that the magnetosphere is weakening and could completely disappear within 500 years as a precursor pole reversal and inversion of the magnetic field . All this has happened – the geological history suggests the magnetic field is reversed there 250,000 years , which means that , with the last event, there 800,000 years , the current situation , a reversal of fields magnetic . seems to be late. While the effects are difficult to predict , the consequences can be enormous. Satellites, among other essential communications, may be more exposed to the solar wind , and the oil industry uses readings from the magnetic field to guide exercises.  » Swarm is an essential task , not only for Europe but also for the world , » said the Director General of ESA Jean- Jacques Dordain Reuters after launch. « We can not live on planet Earth without the (magnetic) shield.  » The Swarm mission was developed and built by Astrium unit , European aerospace group EADS .

IN 2007 , I predicted :

In 2007, I wrote an article in my forum ( ) on the fragility of life and the inversion of pôles.Je then describing the discoveries of Themis -1 satellite reception gaps in the magnetic field of the Earth.

Le satellite Themis-1 ,en 2007.

The satellite Themis-1 ,in 2007.

Les brèches découvertes par Themis-1,en 2007.Le danger s'est agravé.

Breaches discovered by Themis-1 in 2007.The danger is growing.

Magnetic anomaly observed in the South Atlantic: a magnetic reversal taking place?

Anomalie  masgnétique

Article  » British Geological Survey »

The Earth’s magnetic field, generated deep within the planet, is a shield against particle radiation from space. In the South Atlantic this shield is much lower than anywhere else in the world and therefore the space radiation penetrates deeper into the atmosphere. This region is known as the  » South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA)  » and the influence of the SAA is a known hazard to satellites, spacecraft and aircraft at high altitude.

Monitoring changes in the magnetic field

The entrance to the radiation in the atmosphere depends on the magnetic activity of the sun and geometry (or shape ) of the magnetic field of the Earth . Thus, to understand the space environment , particularly during magnetic storms , is important. Equally important is the understanding of changes in the magnetic field over time , the surface of the Earth.

See also  » the long-term monitoring of the magnetic field of the Earth » :

During a magnetic reversal ?

The South Atlantic anomaly is known to be more extended and oriented to the west of South Africa, where the internal magnetic field rapidly weakens in this region. This may be the first signs of a change of direction coming into the internal magnetic field . We do not know in detail what exactly happens during inversions between the observed changes in the magnetic field and when the reversal is completed . However, these factors are important in knowing where the radiation risk may be increased and how the atmosphere might respond .

Earth’s magnetic field has had many ups , downs and reversals in the past. The last reversal back to 800,000 years. Therefore , the earth is known to be able to regenerate its magnetic field. Understand the development of the SAA may therefore be significant in understanding the reversal process and its impact on life and the natural environment.

An observatory on terrestrial magnetism , located in South Georgia , keeps track of the anomaly in the South Atlantic and notes the changes that occur in the center of the Earth.

Improve forecasts

New data will be used to build better mathematical models for the magnetic field. These models can be used to deduct the evolution of the liquid flow in the outer iron core of the Earth . This fluid flow supports the magnetic field of the Earth and allows us to make predictions about future changes .

Alarming NOAA data : acceleration of the pole shift


NOAA National Geophysical Data Center maintains a set of annual magnetic north pole coordinates going back to the year 1590 , based on measurements at the beginning of logs to modern techniques.

Noting that there have been many recent reports of pole shift , to the point where the phenomenon because of real problems people such as the temporary closure of airports, further investigation was required.

After transferring 420 years of data from different positions of the north pole of the Geo Data Center , NOAA , the configuration to fit in an Excel spreadsheet , adding a complicated formula to determine the exact distance between 2 calculations of latitude- longitude, apply the formula to each point of the data series, and then finally traced all in a visual graph, it is alarming to discover the great distance traveled only poles in the last 10-20 years .

Here is a very interesting fact …

Since 1860, the movement of the magnetic pole has more than doubled every 50 years. It’s pretty important.

Here is another very interesting fact …

Over the past 150 years, the pole shift has been in the same direction.

The following fact is even more amazing …

Over the past 10 years, the magnetic north pole has shifted nearly half of the total distance of the past 50 years ! In other words, the pole shift has apparently accelerated significantly .

The pole shift has more than doubled over the past 50 years.


The current rate of switching the magnetic north pole is about 55 kilometers per year. According to the data set, in 2000, the North Magnetic Pole has moved more than 70 km.

Now the problem is that since the pole shift amounted to a record high over the last 10-20 years in almost 400 years of data, the cumulative effect starts now be felt worldwide .

Does the effects affect us little or going to the wrong way ? I guess time will tell, but at current rates , there will probably direct effects on many systems in the coming years , many of them will be nuisance issues such as documentation changes while others are likely to be severe.

It is not known if the change will accelerate or slow down in the coming years . Some say that a pole shift is already late, and this phenomenon may be indicators of the beginning of this process.

Note that the Earth’s magnetic field is what protects us from radiation. Without him, we would not have survived. Is a reverse polarity cause between the two  » flip- flop  » a period of time without any magnetic fields so that we would be exposed to deadly radiation?

Déplacement des pôles

At the direction of the current , the magnetic north pole is heading directly towards Russia. The following image shows the dramatic acceleration while pointing out the last 50 years compared to the last 10 years of the movement .


The magnetic field variations and climate : the interweaving between the magnetic field of the Sun and the Earth: , the magnetic – field – , 118504.html

Magnetic and geographic north magnetic declination :

Very good site on the magnetic field :

The inclination Earth will cool us

Compasses do not end up losing the north :
North magnetic pole and earthquakes today

Pole et centre

The increase in the number of strong earthquakes today can be linked to the phenomenon of polar change and are both byproducts of the Earth core turbulent liquid iron and outdoor hot, raging around a solid iron inner core as hot as the Sun and rotate faster than the rotation of the planet itself .

The Earth mantle and crust are floating above an electrically conductive stormy sea which produces molten iron magnetic field of the planet called the dynamo effect . The magnetic north pole was located in 1831 and has been regularly followed up to the most recent measurement taken some time ago in 2001. Meanwhile , the division has proposed an amazing 1.100 kilometers . In fact, since 1970, the division was much faster , from 10 km to 40 km per year , an incredible four-fold increase .

We do not know why there was no mission to physically locate the magnetic North Pole since the last observed position in 2001 . There are only estimates of its current location.

As the speed of its movement has accelerated up by a factor of four in such a short time , it might be reasonable to ask whether his speed has continued to increase since 2001. Apparently the incentive is there to check .

Polar change is caused by substantial changes in the movement of the molten iron outer core .

Dr. Tony Phillips Science News – NASA has identified the following information … About 400 times polar shift took place during the last 330 million years, while the average interval between reversals in recent geological time was about 200,000 years . Reversal of the last field Earth occurred 780,000 years ago and we are apparently very late.

Most of the evidence gathered from the analysis of certain types of rocks indicates that a polar shift inversion process can take up to 1,000 or 8,000 years . However there have also been reports of the process itself completed much faster than that, the most famous story are measures of lava rock at Steens Mountain , Oregon , which indicate that the magnetic field has been moving up to 6 degrees per day for a particular position polar nearly 16 million years.

The process of polar change itself is of concern not only for its effects on the earth such as volcanoes and earthquakes , but if the behavior is such that the first field reduces to zero before reconstruct, Earth will be exposed without sufficient defense to solar radiation, which would be disastrous . In fact , the magnetic field is now rapidly weakening according to some scientists . There are several theories on how a reversal would take place , some still maintain protection against the sun while others do not.

We know that the current magnetic pole shift occurs quickly, and we know that this is the result of an outer core tumultuous evolution . We could conclude that this cause – effect could contribute to other changes observed on the surface of the planet such as the movement of tectonic plates resulting in more earthquakes today. So far in 2010 , we observed a significant increase in earthquakes, especially in the range of magnitude higher . Everything we see here on recent magnetic pole shift and today earthquakes can all be linked and can be reflections of changes occurring deep beneath our feet.


vitess10 (1)

Drift velocity of the position of the magnetic north pole since 1840, based on field measurements (blue curve) and three different geomagnetic models for three different time intervals.

This phenomenon of sudden acceleration is not yet fully explained. It could be related to an increase in the magnetic field flux in the polar region north of the Earth’s core. This would be caused by the expulsion of the magnetic field lines of the core, in a close to the origin of the appearance of sunspots mechanism.

Source :

Other article on the same subject:

Fantastic discovery on planet Mars

Laisser un commentaire

Hole in mars

What created this unusual hole in Mars? The hole was discovered by chance on images of the dusty slopes of Mars’ Pavonis Mons volcano taken by the HiRISE instrument aboard the robotic Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter currently circling Mars. The hole appears to be an opening to an underground cavern, partly illuminated on the image right. Analysis of this and follow-up images revealed the opening to be about 35 meters across, while the interior shadow angle indicates that the underlying cavern is roughly 20 meters deep. Why there is a circular crater surrounding this hole remains a topic of speculation, as is the full extent of the underlying cavern. Holes such as this are of particular interest because their interior caves are relatively protected from the harsh surface of Mars, making them relatively good candidates to contain Martian life. These pits are therefore prime targets for possible future spacecraft, robots, and even human interplanetary explorers.


Sources: , ,

Earth in danger-the danger from space: Apophis and killers of planets

Laisser un commentaire


Today February 15, 2013, an asteroid weighing 135,000 tonnes and measuring 45 meters in diameter pass close to our planet to the incredible speed of 28,000 km / h. However, we can breathe. NASA ensures that it will not collide with the Earth.

Note that the meteor that hit the Urals region, north-western Russia this morning, has more than 1,000 wounded (including 200 children) according to the Russian authorities, but this natural phenomenon is not bound to the asteroid that will pass close to Earth tonight.

After the meteor that hit Russia in Friday morning another celestial body came to visit us in the vicinity of our planet. Asteroid 2012 DA14 passed very close to Earth at 14 h 24 (EDT), only 27 700 miles from near the geostationary satellites. This celestial body not yet represent any danger.

There would be no link between the two events, according to scientists.

2012 DA14 is about 50 m long and has a mass estimated at 130 000 tonnes (equivalent to 3 carriers). The asteroid was found upright in Indonesia and 8,000 km below the ring formed by the artificial satellite orbit above the equator. Some of them are at 36 000 km, but the risk of collision remained almost nonexistent.

The object reaches the speed of 28 000 km / hour.

Observation impossible with the naked eye

Even if passed very close to Earth, 2012 DA14 was not visible because of its – relative – small. In fact, it is moved to a distance of 14 times closer than the Moon as our planet. In addition, it does not reflect much sunlight. Thus, its brightness has remained lower than any star discernible without instruments.

Amateur astronomers equipped with binoculars, goggles or telescopes have been able to see him in a favorable environment, away from city lights. He appeared as a moving dot as an artificial satellite.

Did you know? 2012 DA14 is known for less than a year. Its discovery, La Sagra Observatory in Andalusia, Spain, dates back to February 22, 2012, during his visit to 2.6 million kilometers away.


In the event that an asteroid struck the Earth size, it would create a crater of a kilometer in diameter and destroy all life in a radius of 20 kilometers.

2012 DA14 loop current its revolution around the sun with a period of 366 days. It belongs to the group of near-Earth asteroids that cross Apollos regular trajectory of the Earth and may thus represent a potential threat of collision.

In June 2004, Apophis, an asteroid of about 325 m (± 15 m) in diameter and a mass of more than 45 million tons has been discovered by astronomers. In its race around the sun, asteroid directly threatens our planet a cataclysmic collision.

For the first time, a NEO [1], so named in 2004 MNA was ranked second degree on the Torino Scale [2] explained Donald Yeomans, a scientist at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of NASA in 2004.

The NEO threat was discovered by R. A. Tucker, D. J. Tholen and F. Bernardi via Observatory Kitt Peak, Arizona, southwest of the United States. NASA immediately alerted its network of ground detection.

Initial estimates indicated when the asteroid that crosses Earth’s orbit twice during its revolution, could meet the Earth’s orbit in April 2029, with a collision unlikely, but not impossible.

Other calculations, dated 31 October 2005, extended the maturity of a cross with the Earth in April 2036 with an assessed risk then one of 5560! This corresponds to level 1 (10) of the Torino Scale. 2004 MNA was then renamed 99942 Apophis [3], the name of an Egyptian deity of evil and darkness (Apep).

New calculations dated May 6, 2008 dismissed a little more risk of collision. The NEO then had a « chance » to 45000 to collide with Earth April 13, 2036: the level of risk on the Torino Scale pondered 0.

Finally, the latest calculations by NASA October 7, 2009 indicated that the risk of Apophis collision with Earth is no more than 1 in 233,000 for Sunday, April 13, 2036. If we consider all the dates where Apophis would cross the Earth’s orbit, the probability of impact is 1 in 135,000, ie, there is 99.99926% chance that the asteroid not touch the Earth …

Apophis is expected to come close to Earth April 13, 2029

Russian astronomers have confirmed this likelihood, Ria Novosti reported. According to Leonid Sokolov, professor at the Faculty of celestial mechanics at the University of St. Petersburg, « April 13, 2029, Apophis will approach Earth at a distance of about 37,000 or 38,000 miles. There may be a collision with the Earth April 13, 2036.  »

In fact, in April 2029 seems more worrisome because Apophis should pass only 30,000 km from the Earth! For comparison, the Moon is distant about 385,000 km from Earth. The NEO frôlerait so the Earth at a distance less than our communication satellites which are in geostationary orbit 36,000 km above the Earth. The object should be visible in the sky is cause a few scares.

Fortunately, for the moment, other researchers, including experts from the Institute of Applied Astronomy of Russian Academy of Sciences, view this as unlikely collision.

These estimates are bound to be refined in the coming years because the trajectory of the asteroid is subject to uncertainty [4] which may well prove or disprove the likelihood of impact.

Indeed, « the precise determination of the orbit of Apophis is particularly difficult due to the ignorance of the » Yarkovsky effect « , named after the Russian engineer who discovered in the early twentieth century phenomenon: when a celestial body by rotation approaches the sun, it is heated on one side before cooling when turned on itself. This cooling occurs by emitting infrared radiation which creates a thrust infinitesimal but Continuing on the asteroid and thus alters the path « specifies the CNES.

The Apophis asteroid came close to Earth Jan. 9, 2013 about 14,460,000 miles. An opportunity for astronomers to study its orbit and to better assess the risk of collision with the Earth.

Apophis will remain observable with telescopes until February-March 2013 and will again be out of reach until 2021.

Consequences of a collision still unlikely

Scientists, however, indicate that « in the unlikely event where it would crash well, » the meteor that is heated to over 1600 ° C entering the atmosphere, with consequential cataclysmic tsunami (tidal- tide) if he plunges into the ocean, [5] or massive damage on land and populated areas.

Impact with Earth would release more energy of 506 megatons. It is about 34 000 times the power of the bomb dropped on Hiroshima on August 6 1945 which had then reached a power of about 15 kilotons.

Fear that such an event is raised Apophis is already nicknamed the « destroyer of worlds. »

How to avoid the worst?

If the risk of collision with the Earth fell sharply after the new details about the trajectory of 99942 Apophis, he susbiste doubt about its precise trajectory when it passes near Earth. Thus, Patrick Michel, an astrophysicist at the Observatory of Côte d’Azur showed [6] that only 600 meters, Apophis could crash into Earth or continue its course in space during its passage 32000 km from the Earth in 2036. This gap will depend on the Earth gravitational perturbations it is, for the moment, not possible to determine.

This is why scientists have insisted that discussions be engaged on ways to avoid disaster or regional warming. Thus, a working group of experts from several countries prepared a draft international treaty to be submitted to the UN in 2009.

Already, examines CNES space mission designed to determine the internal structure of the asteroid and allow to change the trajectory of the NEO, if it should become really threatening.

Several more or less risky ways to deflect Apophis is already considered: explosion, deviation, gravity tractor, satellite parasol …

Some asteroids like Apophis, regularly pass near the Earth. And so the chances of one of them hitting our planet are almost nil, scientists think actively ways to neutralize these cars space and avoid disaster.

Consider ways to deflect the trajectory of the NEO is not in vain because odds are that others will be discovered asteroids threatening the meantime.


Asteroid moving close to Earth
The Torino Scale which comprises 10 degrees assesses the impact probability of asteroid or comet with Earth
Also known as Apep the Destroyer, Apophis is the Egyptian god of evil and destruction who lived in eternal darkness.
Apophis can see its trajectory altered by gravitational perturbations caused by other solar system bodies.
Oceans cover 77% of the surface of the Earth
The Earth-Moon distance is about 384 403 km on average.

Older Entries

%d blogueurs aiment cette page :